This sectarian division, still existent today, probably took time to assume formal shape. These accounts were written centuries after the fact and are valueless as genuine historical testimony. Of the councils recorded in Jain history, the last one, held at Valabhi in Saurashtra in modern Gujarat in either or ce , without Digambara participation, codified the Shvetambara canon that is still in use. The Digambara monastic community denounced the codification, and the schism between the two communities became irrevocable. During this period, Jainism spread westward to Ujjain , where it apparently enjoyed royal patronage.
Later, in the 1st century bce , according to tradition, a monk named Kalakacharya apparently overthrew King Gardabhilla of Ujjain and orchestrated his replacement with the Shahi kings who were probably of Scythian or Persian origin. During the reign of the Gupta dynasty — c. Jainism religion. Written By: G. See Article History. Read More on This Topic. Jainism likely emerged about the 6th century bce in reaction to Brahmanic Hinduism. Along with Buddhism,…. Religious denominations that do not accept the occurrence of evolution tend to be those that believe in strictly literal interpretations of religious texts.
The creation—evolution controversy began in Europe and North America in the late 18th century, when new interpretations of geological evidence led to various theories of an ancient Earth , and findings of extinctions demonstrated in the fossil geological sequence prompted early ideas of evolution , notably Lamarckism. In England these ideas of continuing change were at first seen as a threat to the existing "fixed" social order, and both church and state sought to repress them.
The scientific establishment at first dismissed it scornfully and the Church of England reacted with fury, but many Unitarians , Quakers and Baptists —groups opposed to the privileges of the established church —favoured its ideas of God acting through such natural laws. By the end of the 19th century, there was no serious scientific opposition to the basic evolutionary tenets of descent with modification and the common ancestry of all forms of life. The publication of Darwin's On the Origin of Species in brought scientific credibility to evolution, and made it a respectable field of study.
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Despite the intense interest in the religious implications of Darwin's book, theological controversy over higher criticism set out in Essays and Reviews largely diverted the Church of England's attention. Some of the liberal Christian authors of that work expressed support for Darwin, as did many Nonconformists. The Reverend Charles Kingsley , for instance, openly supported the idea of God working through evolution. These essays argued for a conciliation between Darwinian evolution and the tenets of theism, at a time when many on both sides perceived the two as mutually exclusive.
George Jackson Mivart and John Augustine Zahm , Roman Catholics in the United States became accepting of evolution itself while ambivalent towards natural selection and stressing humanity's divinely imbued soul.
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During the late 19th century evolutionary ideas were most strongly disputed by the premillennialists , who held to a prophecy of the imminent return of Christ based on a form of Biblical literalism , and were convinced that the Bible would be invalidated if any error in the Scriptures was conceded.
However, hardly any of the critics of evolution at that time were as concerned about geology, freely granting scientists any time they needed before the Edenic creation to account for scientific observations, such as fossils and geological findings. Science professors at liberal northeastern universities almost immediately embraced the theory of evolution and introduced it to their students.
However, some people in parts of the south and west of the United States, which had been influenced by the preachings of Christian fundamentalist evangelicals , rejected the theory as immoral. In the United Kingdom, Evangelical creationists were in a tiny minority. It was not officially opposed to evolution theory, but its main founder James Reddie objected to Darwin's work as " inharmonious " and "utterly incredible ", and Philip Henry Gosse , author of Omphalos , was a vice-president.
The institute's membership increased to , then declined sharply. In the s George McCready Price attended and made several presentations of his creationist views, which found little support among the members.
In John Ambrose Fleming was made president; while he insisted on creation of the soul, his acceptance of divinely guided development and of Pre-Adamite humanity meant he was thought of as a theistic evolutionist. At the beginning of the 19th century debate had started to develop over applying historical methods to Biblical criticism , suggesting a less literal account of the Bible. Simultaneously, the developing science of geology indicated the Earth was ancient , and religious thinkers sought to accommodate this by day-age creationism or gap creationism.
Neptunianist catastrophism , which had in the 17th and 18th centuries proposed that a universal flood could explain all geological features, gave way to ideas of geological gradualism introduced in by James Hutton based upon the erosion and depositional cycle over millions of years, which gave a better explanation of the sedimentary column.
Biology and the discovery of extinction first described in the s and put on a firm footing by Georges Cuvier in challenged ideas of a fixed immutable Aristotelian " great chain of being. Emerging differences led some [ according to whom? When most scientists came to accept evolution by around , European theologians generally came to accept evolution as an instrument of God. For instance, Pope Leo XIII in office referred to longstanding Christian thought that scriptural interpretations could be reevaluated in the light of new knowledge, [ citation needed ] and Roman Catholics came around to acceptance of human evolution subject to direct creation of the soul.
In the United States the development of the racist Social Darwinian eugenics movement by certain [ which? In Britain this has been attributed to their minority status leading to a more tolerant, less militant theological tradition.
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In his speech at the Pontifical Academy of Sciences in , Pope Francis declared that he accepted the Big Bang theory and the theory of evolution and that God was not "a magician with a magic wand". At first in the U. Those criticising these approaches took the name "fundamentalist"—originally coined by its supporters to describe a specific package of theological beliefs that developed into a movement within the Protestant community of the United States in the early part of the 20th century, and which had its roots in the Fundamentalist—Modernist Controversy of the s and s.
Up until the early midth century [ when?
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Around the start of the 20th century some evangelical scholars had ideas accommodating evolution, such as B. Warfield who saw it as a natural law expressing God's will.
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By then most U. The numbers of children receiving secondary education increased rapidly, and parents who had fundamentalist tendencies or who opposed social ideas of what was called " survival of the fittest " had real concerns about what their children were learning about evolution. The main British creationist movement in this period [ which? The Victoria Institute had the stated objective of defending "the great truths revealed in Holy Scripture Amateur ornithologist Douglas Dewar , the main driving-force within the EPM, published a booklet entitled Man: A Special Creation and engaged in public speaking and debates with supporters of evolution.
In the late s he resisted American creationists' call for acceptance of flood geology , which later led to conflict within the organisation. Despite trying to win the public endorsement of C. Tilney, whose dogmatic and authoritarian style ran the organisation "as a one-man band", rejecting flood geology, unwaveringly promoting gap creationism, and reducing the membership to lethargic inactivity.
By the mids the CSM had formally incorporated flood geology into its "Deed of Trust" which all officers had to sign and condemned gap creationism and day-age creationism as unscriptural. In Tennessee passed a statute, the Butler Act , which prohibited the teaching of the theory of evolution in all schools in the state. Later that year Mississippi passed a similar law, as did Arkansas in In the Supreme Court of the United States struck down these "anti-monkey" laws as unconstitutional, "because they established a religious doctrine violating both the First and Fourth Amendments to the United States Constitution.
In more recent times religious fundamentalists who accept creationism have struggled to get their rejection of evolution accepted as legitimate science within education institutions in the U. A series of important court cases has resulted. After , in the aftermath of World War I , the Fundamentalist—Modernist controversy had brought a surge of opposition to the idea of evolution, and following the campaigning of William Jennings Bryan several states introduced legislation prohibiting the teaching of evolution.
By , such legislation was being considered in 15 states, and had passed in some states, such as Tennessee. John T. The trial, widely publicized by H. Mencken among others, is commonly referred to as the Scopes Monkey Trial. The court convicted Scopes, but the widespread publicity galvanized proponents of evolution.
Although it overturned the conviction, the Court decided that the Butler Act was not in violation of the Religious Preference provisions of the Tennessee Constitution Section 3 of Article 1 , which stated "that no preference shall ever be given, by law, to any religious establishment or mode of worship". We are not able to see how the prohibition of teaching the theory that man has descended from a lower order of animals gives preference to any religious establishment or mode of worship.
So far as we know, there is no religious establishment or organized body that has in its creed or confession of faith any article denying or affirming such a theory Protestants, Catholics, and Jews are divided among themselves in their beliefs, and that there is no unanimity among the members of any religious establishment as to this subject.
Belief or unbelief in the theory of evolution is no more a characteristic of any religious establishment or mode of worship than is belief or unbelief in the wisdom of the prohibition laws. It would appear that members of the same churches quite generally disagree as to these things. Furthermore, [the Butler Act] requires the teaching of nothing.
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It only forbids the teaching of evolution of man from a lower order of animals As the law thus stands, while the theory of evolution of man may not be taught in the schools of the State, nothing contrary to that theory [such as Creationism] is required to be taught. It is not necessary now to determine the exact scope of the Religious Preference clause of the Constitution Section 3 of Article 1 is binding alike on the Legislature and the school authorities.